Processed food to Japan
Trends and opportunities
The processed food sector covers a diverse range of products – from lightly processed fruit and vegetables to ready-to-eat meals. The Japanese processed food market is very competitive and sophisticated, catering for increasingly quality and price conscious consumers.
Australia has an outstanding reputation among Japanese food importers and consumers as a supplier of safe, healthy and high quality food.
With diversified market needs for food and lifestyle products, Japanese consumers are purchasing imported food products from department stores, specialty food stores, supermarkets and online. These consumers are willing to pay higher prices for products that promote a certain lifestyle and image or have a unique value proposition that cannot be offered by any other products.
Japanese processors, wholesalers, restaurant chains, supermarkets and premium food stores are proactively looking for new products that are safe, price-competitive and uniquely value-added overseas. Consumer buying patterns continue to influence demand, procurement and marketing.
Trends and opportunities include:
- Ageing demographic: Japan’s ageing population and rising single person households is increasing the demand for food products such as ready-to-eat meals.
- Unique products: Wholesalers look for products that are ‘interesting’ for consumers. ‘Unique’ and ‘high quality’ attributes are seen as strong selling points and are often used in marketing strategies. For instance, in many cases, products with a distinct ‘Australian’ flavour or feature are at an advantage
- Seasonal gifts: There is a strong gift culture in Japan around seasonal events such as Valentine’s Day, Christmas, New Year and Obon. Opportunities are open for food products that can be tailored to meet this seasonal demand.
- Natural products: The natural and organic market continues to gradually expand, opening up new opportunities. The emphasis is on natural ingredients which minimise additives and preservatives. Australian products in this area remain well regarded in terms of quality. However, competitive pricing remains a challenge.
- Sweets and snacks: Demand for confectionery and savoury snacks remain high with the focus on quality and uniqueness rather than the overall size of the product.
- Health food: Demand for healthy food is increasing due to an ageing and more health conscious population. In response, Japanese manufacturers are focusing on healthy, functional and anti-ageing products.
- Growing cities: There is a growing demand for high quality, gourmet and uniquely packaged food products in some of Japan’s major cities. For example, as Japan’s overall population continues to decline, Tokyo’s population is expected to expand.
- processed products based on Australian grown crops, meat, dairy, grains
- products with a shelf life of 12 months or longer
- products that have traceability
- products that can be adapted and tailored to suit Japanese buyers’ specifications.
A large number of domestic manufacturers source ingredients such as dairy products, wheat, crops and fruit from Australia.
Australia exports a wide range of processed food products such as:
- confectionery, biscuits and chocolates
- gourmet food
- macadamia nuts
- ingredients for food production.
The Japanese processed food sector is very competitive. Australia is in a unique position to capitalise on its ‘clean, green and safe’ image and also has a competitive advantage in being a large supplier of raw materials for food products.
However, many Japanese importers have raised concerns regarding the price competitiveness of Australian products, making it difficult to sell into the larger consumer market.
Japanese pharmaceutical companies have also entered the health food sector, making the market very competitive. These manufacturers are heavily advertising their brands in retail stores, through television and other media.
Tariffs, regulations and customs
Japanese importers are responsible for ensuring that imported products comply with the relevant regulations. Regulations applicable to imported processed food include:
Note: While Japanese importers are generally responsible for ensuring imported products comply with regulations, exporters should be aware that this is not always the case and check whether any contract places the legal responsibility for regulations with them.
Depending on the product, any of the following may be required as part of Japanese customs procedures:
- certificates of origin for major ingredients used
- certificate of origin under JAEPA for eligible products
- specification of colours, preservatives and additives
- a list of all ingredients with the percentage breakdown
- product process information including flow charts
- laboratory test results – types of tests vary according to the nature of the product
- factory production quality control records
- chemical residue applied to crops used as ingredients
- other certifications such as AQIS documents
- tariffs on processed foods vary according to products, ingredients, and the degree of processing. Specific HS codes will be given once customs registration is made through importer
- tariff quotas apply to some products.
More complex, processed foods with many ingredients and/or production processes may require very detailed information.
Marketing your products and services
Australian companies can take advantage of counter seasonal production, similar time zones and frequent flights direct to major Japanese business centres, such as Tokyo and Osaka.
It is essential for exporters to:
- Draw up a comprehensive export-marketing plan covering target segments, strengths and weaknesses, threats and opportunities.
- Find the right partner (importer or distributor who ideally has capability to distribute to wider networks throughout Japan) and establish the foundations for a long-term relationship. It should be noted that Japanese businesses expect sole distributor status to ensure their investment in promotional activities is maximised. Japanese also tend to respect existing relationships among other companies.
- Ensure that you exercise stringent quality control on your product, especially in terms of product safety.
- Ensure that you can supply consistent quantities within agreed timeframes.
- Demonstrate a willingness to support promotional activities to market your product.
- Communicate with importers in a timely manner.
- Use an approach that is well researched and demonstrates to Japanese purchasers that you understand the sector’s dynamics and competitive market.
- Use strategic marketing that builds on Australia’s good image as a clean and green country.
- Be able to provide importers with detailed information regarding a product’s inputs and an understanding of production capability/capacity. Especially for products with traceability and organic components.
- Prepare detailed information about company owners, management and top-level staff to demonstrate continuity of management and quality control practices.
- Make sure contracts and business documents are fully understood by both sides. Communicating effectively with Japanese companies can sometimes be challenging.
The Japanese market is dominated by a small number of local wholesalers. Manufacturers and importers have historically used these wholesalers to distribute products to Japanese retailers and consumers.
The traditional distribution channels for processed food are multi-layered and relatively complex with personal, historical and financial relations playing their part in the decision making process.
Distribution channels are becoming simpler, as small to medium sized wholesalers merge to achieve economies of scale or bypass importers. Each product in the food and beverage industry has its own specialised wholesaler. It is important to investigate the market, competition, regulations, and available channels to determine the best route to distribute your products.
Links and industry contacts
Government, business and trade resources
Japan Consumer Affairs Agency: Labelling Law
Japan External Trade Organization
JETRO Guidebook for Export to Japan on Alcoholic Beverages
JETRO Handbook for Agricultural and Fishery Products Import Regulations 2009
JETRO Specifications and Standards for Foods, Food Additives, etc. Under the Food Sanitation Act (Abstracts) 2010
Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries of Japan
Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries of Japan (JAS organic law)
Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare: Food Sanitation Law
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